Types of Land Surveys in CT

Choice of a survey type is made relative to the intent and purpose for which the survey is to be used.
There are many types of land surveys in CT. The survey type is intended to classify these criteria. When a map is prepared, the survey type shall be stated in the title of the map and, in order to reflect the scope of service, may be clarified within the notes on the map. All surveys are prepared in strick accordance with the Connecticut General Statutes Sec. 20-300b which governs land surveyors in the State of Connecticut.

Property/Boundary and Limited Property/ Boundary Surveys

Property/Boundary and Limited Property/Boundary Surveys require sufficient investigation, study, field measurement and evaluation of factors affecting boundaries, real property interests and other relevant matters with respect to the subject real estate to enable the surveyor to render a professional opinion as to boundary locations and any conflicts therewith. These surveys require the preparation of a detailed field survey and are intended to present the surveyor's property/boundary opinion. It is recognized that certain factors pertaining to boundary line determination are beyond the surveyor's purview and may require agreements between abutting property owners or action by the courts. Facts surrounding such circumstances shall be noted.

Types of Property/Boundary Surveys

Property Survey
A Property Survey is a type of survey which depicts or notes the position of boundaries with respect to:
  • locations of all boundary monumentation found or set
  • apparent improvements and features, including as a minimum: dwellings, barns, garages, sheds, driveways, roadways, surface utilities, visible bodies of water and swimming pools
  • record easements and visible evidence of the use thereof
  • record and apparent means of ingress and egress
  • lines of occupation, including as a minimum: fences, walls, hedges and yards
  • deed restrictions pertaining to the location of buildings or other apparent improvements
  • unresolved conflicts with record deed descriptions and maps
  • all apparent boundary encroachments
  • monumentation required to be set at all corners created by a deflection angle of not less than 70 degrees between two consecutive courses and at intervals not to exceed 600 feet (180 meters) along the boundaries between said corners, except where natural or man-made monumentation defines or occupies the line. Refer to Section 20-300b-14 of these regulations for a description of acceptable monuments. Except when intended for use for Subdivision or Resubdivision applications, this requirement may be waived only through written agreement between surveyor and client and with a notation on the map that all monumentation found or set has been depicted.
Perimeter Survey
A Perimeter Survey is a type of survey which maps a strip along the boundaries, the minimum width of which shall be 15 feet (5 meters), oriented 10 feet (3 meters) within and 5 feet (2 meters) beyond the parcel limits. The purpose of this type of survey is to document the boundary locations by depicting and noting their position with respect to:
  • locations of all boundary monumentation found or set
  • apparent improvements and features, including as a minimum: dwellings, barns, garages, sheds, driveways, roadways, surface utilities, visible bodies of water and swimming pools
  • record easements and visible evidence of the use thereof
  • record and visible means of ingress and egress
  • lines of occupation, including as a minimum: fences, walls, hedges and yards
  • unresolved conflicts with existing deed descriptions and maps
  • deed restrictions pertaining to the location of buildings or other apparent improvements
  • apparent boundary encroachments
  • monumentation required to be set at all corners created by a deflection angle of not less than 70 degrees between two consecutive courses and at intervals not to exceed 600 feet (180 meters) along the boundaries between said corners, except where natural or man-made monumentation defines or occupies the line. Refer to Section 20-300b-14 for a description of acceptable monuments. This requirement may be waived only through written agreement between surveyor and client and with a notation on the map that all monumentation found or set has been depicted.

Limited Property/Boundary Surveys

Existing Building Location Survey
An Existing Building Location Survey is a type of survey which depicts or notes the position of all buildings on the property with respect to boundaries, record easement lines and pertinent municipal setback requirements and deed restrictions. No other improvements or features need be depicted.
Zoning Location Survey
A Zoning Location Survey is a type of survey which depicts or notes the position of existing or proposed improvements with respect to applicable municipal setback requirements. The purpose of this type of survey is to enable determination of compliance with said requirements. Only those portions of the property pertinent to the issues being addressed must be depicted. No other improvements or features need be depicted.
Improvement Location Survey
An Improvement Location Survey is a type of survey which depicts or notes the position, horizontally and, where required, vertically, between particular existing or proposed improvements with respect to the applicable municipal or statutory requirements. The purpose of this type of survey is to enable determination of compliance with said requirements. No other improvements or features need be depicted.
Subdivision or Resubdivision Map
A Subdivision or Resubdivision Map is a map of a type of survey which depicts or notes the layout of lots and the associated public or private highways, easements and lands and is intended for submission to applicable regulatory entities. This map shall conform to the requirements of a Property Survey or be submitted along with a Property Survey. The monumentation requirements of Article III of these regulations do not apply to the Original Survey portions.
Easement Map
An Easement Map is a map of a type of survey which depicts and notes the position of an existing or proposed easement with respect to:
  • boundary monumentation found or set
  • improvements and features, including as a minimum: dwellings, barns, garages, sheds, driveways, roadways, surface utilities, visible bodies of water, fences, walls, hedges, yards and swimming pools
  • other record easements and visible evidence of the use thereof
  • unresolved conflicts with record deed descriptions and maps
All visible encroachments shall be depicted or noted thereon. For boundaries intersected by the easement lines, the surveyor shall indicate the Boundary Determination Category used.
Boundary Stake-Out
A Boundary Stake-Out is a type of survey which marks or monuments the physical position of property corners or lines. The surveyor shall issue a signed and sealed letter or sketch indicating the monuments or markers set and indicating the Boundary Determination Category used. No other features need be depicted.

Additional Requirements

All survey types listed in subsections of this section shall comply with the following:
  • AA, A-1 or A-2 Classes of Horizontal Accuracy as defined in subsection (b) of Section 20-300b-11 of these regulations
  • onumentation or marker Location Requirements as defined in Section 20-300b-13 of these regulations
  • research requirements defined in Article IV of these regulations
  • distances along boundary or easement lines expressed to the nearest .01 of a foot (.003 meters), except where said lines are irregular and constantly changing, as along a body of water
  • directions, defined by angles, bearings or azimuths, along boundary or easement lines expressed to the nearest 10 seconds for Class A-2 and to the nearest 1 second for Classes AA and A-1, except where said lines are irregular and constantly changing, as along a body of water
  • curved lines defined with the central angle, radius, arc length and tangent. For curves which are not tangent to an adjoining course, the information required to reproduce them shall be indicated. Lines which are radial shall be so noted
  • in areas where lines are irregular and constantly changing, as along a body of water, meander, tie or reference lines shall depict or note the position of points located along said lines and allow for a mathematical closure of the map
  • adjoining properties identified by most recently published owners= names (N/F, now or formerly) or by subdivision map and lot numbers
  • areas noted in acres (hectares) or square feet (square meters)
  • all monuments or markers set or found depicted and adequately described. When reference markers have been used, their position with respect to the boundary shall be indicated
  • a north arrow depicted on every sheet. The reference to grid, magnetic or north from another map, shall be noted. If magnetic, the date of the reading shall be noted

Boundary Determination Categories

The category used in determining property/boundary opinions for all survey types listed in subsections (b) and (c) of this section shall be identified within the title or notes on the map, and shall be one of the following:
First Survey:
A First Survey is a survey of existing property lines made when the surveyor has not found a map or other document of the subject property, such as a metes and bounds description which represents a previous surveyor's professional opinion. If the surveyor has found a prior survey, the current survey is by definition, a Resurvey.
Resurvey:
A Resurvey is a survey of property lines made when the surveyor has found a prior survey of the subject property. After evaluation of the prior survey, within the context of field and record information, the Resurvey is prepared. The Resurvey may or may not agree with the prior survey. If the surveyor has found a prior survey of the subject property and, in the surveyor's professional opinion, determines it to be sufficient for reliance and update, the term Dependent Resurvey shall be used. The Dependent Resurvey places reliance on the prior survey while updating same to reflect current conditions.
Original Survey:
An Original Survey is a survey indicating proposed property lines or parcels of land. The Boundary Determination Category of existing boundaries shall be indicated.

Control Surveys

Horizontal Control Survey
A Horizontal Control Survey is a type of survey which establishes points on a horizontal coordinate system, such as latitude and longitude, state, municipal, or arbitrary coordinates. The horizontal control net shall comply with one of the Classes of Horizontal Accuracy defined in Section 20-300b-11.
Vertical Control Survey
A Vertical Control Survey is a type of survey which establishes bench marks in relation to an appropriate vertical datum. Vertical measurements shall comply with one of the Classes of Vertical Accuracy defined in Section 20-300b-11.

Topographic Survey

A Topographic Survey is a type of survey which depicts the configuration (relief) of the earth's surface (ground) and the location of natural and artificial objects thereon. The Topographic and Vertical Classes of Accuracy, as defined in Section 20-300b-11 of these regulations, shall be noted. Bench marks shall be depicted or noted on all Class T-1, T-2 and T-3 Surveys. Survey datum and contour interval shall be depicted or noted. If property lines depicted do not present a surveyor's property/boundary opinion, there shall be a note clearly indicating this fact.

Right of Way Survey

A Right of Way Survey is a type of survey which maps the limits of existing or proposed highways or public utility transmission easements, including the mapping of parcels to be acquired for such purpose(s), as referenced to an established baseline. The baseline to which the highway, easement or acquisition lines are referenced shall be a traverse line, project centerline or construction baseline, any of which shall be monumented or specifically tied to permanent reference markers and shall comply at a minimum with Horizontal Accuracy Class A-2 as defined in Section 20-300b-11 of these regulations and monumentation requirements defined in Article III of these regulations. Highway or easement lines may be deed, occupation, notification or acquisition lines; shall be noted accordingly; and may be monumented. The features depicted on the mapping may be the result of aerial photogrammetric or field location surveys performed for project planning purposes or may be compiled from various sources. All pertinent sources shall be noted. The method of determining the position of property lines depicted shall be noted as shall the appropriate Horizontal Accuracy Class.

General Location Survey

A General Location Survey is a type of survey which roughly depicts a parcel of land and particular improvements based on record research and compilation of data supplemented by limited field measurements. The specific content is a matter to be agreed upon between the client and the surveyor and clearly noted on the map. This type of survey shall not be used to prepare property descriptions for conveyance. If property lines depicted do not present a surveyor's property/boundary opinion, there shall be a note clearly indicating this fact. Note #1 on the map shall include: "This map was prepared from record research, other maps, limited field measurements and other sources. It is not to be construed as a Property/Boundary or Limited Property/Boundary Survey and is subject to such facts as said surveys may disclose."

Data Accumulation Plan

A Data Accumulation Plan is a type of plan which depicts collected and correlated data of a particular type (or types) within a given area. Data Accumulation Plans may be depicted on a previously prepared map. The horizontal or vertical accuracy classes used in the preparation shall be noted. If property lines depicted do not present a surveyor's property/boundary opinion, there shall be a note clearly indicating this fact.

Compilation Plan

A Compilation Plan is a type of plan based on land record research and other sources of information which depicts the approximate size and shape of a parcel of land. This plan may be derived from records only and not as a result of a field survey or measurements by the surveyor. The accuracy of this plan may vary with the quality of the data from which it has been compiled. All pertinent sources utilized shall be noted on the plan. Where said plan is created for a specific purpose, that purpose shall be noted. Note #1 on this plan shall include: "This plan was compiled from other maps, record research or other sources of information. It is not to be construed as having been obtained as the result of a field survey, and is subject to such change as an accurate field survey may disclose."

Construction Stake-Out Services

Construction Stake-Out Services are types of surveys which control the horizontal or vertical positions of proposed improvements. No plan need be prepared; however, documentation with respect to the position of points placed shall be maintained as a permanent record.

Geographic Information System (GIS) Land Information System (LIS)

Types of systems used for information data banks based on spatial requirements. Reference is made to a publication by the Federal Geodetic Control Committee titled Multipurpose Land Information Systems: The Guide Book. If the information in the GIS/LIS is intended to relate to the surface of the earth, a surveyor shall establish such positional relationship. The surveyor's professional judgment shall be used in determining all appropriate Classes of Accuracy.